The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Reader factors, or the skills, knowledge and understanding a reader has, impact reading comprehension. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. They learn only what’s visible and audible and aren’t aware of what any characters think.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 302), Theme: “Theme is the underlying meaning of a story; it embodies general truths about human nature. Factors that affect reading include but are not limited to: rate of comprehension and retention, bad spelling, hyperactivity, poor self-esteem and lack of coping skills. Literary devices and conventions include symbolism and tone in stories, headings and indexes in nonfiction books, and page layouts for poems.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 292), “Stories can be categorized in different ways, one of which is according to genres. Efeito da simplificação sintática sobre a compreensão de leitura de crianças do ensino fundamental. 1: Ensuring All Students Read, Write, and Think, Ch. Text factors , such as organization of text or … Optimizing Conditions for Learning: Situating Refutations in Epistemic Cognition. Repetition: words, phrases, or lines that are repeated for special effect. Comprehension processes and outcomes with refutation and expository texts and their contribution to learning. Conflict: “The tension or opposition between forces in the plot, and it’s what interests readers enough to continue reading.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 298) Conflict can be found: Within a Character (Tompkins, 2014, p. 299), Characters: “Characters are the people or personified animals in the story.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 301) Characters are developed through appearance, action, dialogue, and monologue. Handwriting Legibility in Healthy Older Adults. 10: Taking Stock: Standards, Assessment, and High-Stakes Testing, Chapter 9-Facilitating Students' Comprehension: Text Factors, How Effective Teachers Focus on Text Factors. They work together to structure a story, and authors manipulate them to develop their stories.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 297), Narrative Devices are used to make writing “more vivid and memorable”. The outcome is reasonable, and the story is a representation of action that seems truthful. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties. Refutation Texts Enhance Spontaneous Transfer of Knowledge. This experience has reinforced how important it is to teach youth these skills and expose them to various types of literature. Once students are confident with these elements, it greatly improves their comprehension and confidence. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Questioning Strategies in the Classroom, Ch. The interplay of reader goals, working memory, and text structure during reading. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning. 310-311), “Explicit instruction about literacy procedures, concepts, strategies, and skills that are taught to individual students, small groups, or the whole class, depending on students’ needs.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 497). Content integration across multiple documents reduces memory for sources. Sandra Fulton. Authors use symbols to enhance the theme of a story.” (Tompkins, 2014, p. 303), Tone: “The overall feeling or mood in a story, ranging from humorous to serious and sad. Exploring reading instruction applied the structure of circulation for reading skills and strategies.

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